Reference list – Croquemort

Allahissem, Bruno. 2015. “Pratiques et Perceptions Du Hip-Hop Dans Le Quartier Chagoua.” MA in Anthropology, University of N’djaména. 

Bakker, Vera. n.d. “Demonstrations in Cameroon: Anglophones Response to Their Marginalization.” Voice4Thought.

Branch, Adam, and Zachariah Cherian Mampilly. 2015. Africa Uprising : Popular Protest and Political Change. London: Zed Books.

Buijtenhuijs, Robert. 1994. “La Violence Au Tchad.” Studia Africana, no. 5: 139–44.
———. 1997. “Donoren En Democratiseringsprocessen in Afrika : Het Voorbeeld van Tsjaad.” Internationale Spectator 51 (1): 26–29.
———. 1998. “Chad in the Age of the Warlords.” In History of Central Africa: The Contemporary Years since 1960, 20–40. London: Longman.

Castells, Manuel. 2009. Communication Power. Oxford, New York: Oxford University Press.

Clifford, James. 1997. Routes: Travel and Translation in the Late Twentieth Century. Cambridge. Mass: Harvard University Press.

Coleman, Gabriella. 2010. “Ethnographic Approaches to Digital Media.” Annual Review of Anthropology 39 (1): 487–505.

De Bruijn, Mirjam. 2015. “The Streets Speak in Africa!” Counter Voices in Africa. March 17.
———. 2016a. “Legendary Words.” Counter Voices in Africa. January 1.
———. 2016b. “Android Youth : The Prix de La Francophonie 35>35.” Counter Voices in Africa. August 11.
———. 2016c. “‘Ensemble Pour Un Tchad Émergent’?” Counter Voices in Africa. August 22.
———. 2016d. “Poverty and Youth: A Recipe for Change in Mali?” Counter Voices in Africa. September 17.
———. 2016e. “Cameroon Alert!” Counter Voices in Africa

Bruijn, M. E. de. 2008. “The Impossibility of Civil Organizations in Post-War Chad.” In Beside the State: Emergent Powers in Contemporary Africa, 89–105. Cologne: Rüdiger Köppe Publishers.

Bruijn, M. E. de, and H. van Dijk. 2007. “Chad.” In African Yearbook: Politics, Economy and Society South of the Sahara in 2006, 215–23. Leiden: Brill.

De Bruijn, Mirjam, Rijk van Dijk, and Jan Bart Gewald, eds. 2007. Strength beyond Strucutre, Social and Historical Trajectories of Agency in Africa. Leiden: Brill.

De Bruijn, Mirjam, and W. M. van Dijk. 2007. “The Multiple Experiences of Civil War in the Guera Region of Chad, 1965-1990.” Sociologus 57 (1): 61–98.

De Goede, Meike. 2016. “Memories of Lumumba: Victimhood and Redemption.” Counter Voices in Africa. January 1.

Debos, Marielle. 2011. “Living by the Gun in Chad: Armed Violence as a Practical Occupation.” The Journal of Modern African Studies 49 (3): 409–28.
———. 2013. Le Métier Des Armes Au Tchad : Le Gouvernement de L’entre-Guerres. Paris: Karthala.


Deuhb, Emmanuel. n.d. “Idriss Déby Itno a-T Il Peur de La Jeunesse?” Rapportage de N’djaména.
———. “La Marche, N’djaména, 11 Mars 2015.” Rapportage de N’djaména

Djindil, Syntyche Nakar, and Mirjam De Bruijn. 2009. “The Silent Victims of Humanitarian Crises and Livelihood (in)security: A Case Study among Migrants in Two Chadian Towns.” JAMBA: Journal of Disaster Risk Studies 2 (3): 253–72.

Dragstra, Fiona. 2016. “Plus ça Change, plus C’est La Même Chose? Understanding How and Why New ICTs Played a Role in Burkina Faso’s Recent Journey to Socio-Political Change.” Research Master Thesis, Leiden: Leiden University.

Falks Moore, Sally. 1977. “Individual Interests and Organizational Structures: Dispute Settlements as ’Events of Articulation.” In Social Anthropology and Law, 159–88. ASA Monograph 14. London and N.W.: Academic Press.

Gleick, James. 2011. The Information: A History, a Theory, a Flood. New York: Pantheon Books.

Dijk, Annigje van. 2016. “Is Violence Hiding behind Bars? Encounters with ‘trauma’ in the Fight against Alcoholism Waged by Beneficiaries and Staff Members of a Small Detox Centre in N’Djamena, Chad.” MA thesis, Utrecht: Utrecht University.

“Global Status Report on Alcohol and Health 2014.” 2014. World Health Organization.

Gupta, Akhil, and James Ferguson. 1992. “Beyond ‘Culture’: Space, Identity, and the Politics of Difference.” Cultural Anthropology 7 (1): 6–23.

Hammar, Amanda, ed. 2014. Displacement Economies in Africa : Paradoxes of Crisis and Creativity. London, New York: Zed Books.

Hands, Joss. 2011. @ Is for Activism: Dissent, Resistance and Rebellion in a Digital Culture. London ; New York, NY: Pluto.

Hazan, Haim, and Esther Hertzog, eds. 2011. Serendipity in Anthropological Research: The Nomadic Turn. Farnham, Surrey, England ; Burlington, VT: Ashgate.

Heitz Tokpa, Katharina. 2014. “Risks and Opportunities : Securing Futures in Côte d’Ivoire’s Violent Crisis and beyond.” Journal Des Africanistes 84 (1): 20–39.

Iwilade, Akin. 2013. “Crisis as Opportunity: Youth, Social Media and the Renegotiation of Power in Africa.” Journal of Youth Studies 16 (8): 1054–68. 

Johnson-Hanks, Jennifer. 2002. “On the Limits of Life Stages in Ethnography: Toward a Theory of Vital Conjunctures.” American Anthropologist 104 (3): 865–80.

Kabatchang, Marguerite-Odile. 2016. “Quelqu’un Disait Que La Peur Est Le Socle de Tous Les Pouvoirs et de Toutes Les Dictatures. Tous Les Peuples de La Terre Sont Gouvernés Par La Peur.” Yadari Info. September.

Kozinets, Robert. 2010. Netnography: Doing Ethnographic Research Online. London: SAGE.

Maclean, Ruth. 2016. “Chad’s Hissène Habré Found Guilty of Crimes against Humanity.” The Guardian, May 30.

Miller, Daniel, and Don Slater. 2001. The Internet: An Ethnographic Approach. Oxford ; New York: Bloomsbury Academic.

Modan, Gabriella. 2016. “Writing the Relationship: Ethnographer-Informant Interactions in the New Media Era.” Journal of Linguistic Anthropology 26 (1): 98–107.

Pelckmans, Lotte. 2009. “Phoning Anthropologists: The Mobile Phone’s (Re-)Shaping of Anthropological Research.” In De Bruijn et Al. (Eds) Mobile Phones: The New Talking Drums of Everyday Africa, 23–47. Leiden: ASC-Langaa.

Remadji, Hoinathy. 2013. Pétrole et Changement Social Au Tchad : Rente Pétrolière et Monétisation Des Relations Économiques et Sociales Dans La Zone Pétrolière de Doba. Paris: Karthala.

Rheingold, H. 2002. “Smart Mobs: The Power of the Mobile Many.” In Smart Mobs: The Next Social Revolution. Cambridge, MA: Perseus Publishing.

Rivoal, Isabelle, and Noel Salazar. 2013. “Contemporary Ethnographic Practice and the Value of Serendipity.” Social Anthropology/Anthropologie Sociale 21 (2): 178–85.

Seli, Djimet. 2014. (De)connexions Identitaires Hadjeray Les Enjeux Des Technologies de La Communication Au Tchad. Bamenda, Cameroon: Langaa.

Vidal, Nuno, and Patrick Chabal, eds. 2009. Southern Africa : Civil Society, Politics and Donor Strategies : Angola and Its Neighbours – South Africa, Namibia, Mozambique, Democratic Republic of Congo and Zimbabwe. Luanda: Media XXI.

Vromen, A., M. Xenos, and B. Loader. 2015. Journal of Youth 18 (1): 80–100. 

Wilson, Catherina. 2016a. “Rumble in the Jungle: From the January 2015 Riots to the #FrontCitoyen2016.” Rumours on the Ubangui. February 5.
———. 2016b. “Chronicle of an Uprising Foretold.” Rumours on the Ubangui. December 19.


External links

Association Tchad Plus

Connecting in Times of Duress

Mirjam de Bruijn’s blog Counter Voices in Africa

DAWA Mobile-Health Solution for neglected diseases in remote areas. Schistosomiasis pilot project in Chad

Deuhb Emmanuel’s blog Rapportage de N’djamena

Yadari Info

L’ermite et le Christ, short story by Didier Lalaye. First prize at the Grand Priz Alain Decaux de la Francophonie


>> More on Biographical method

>> The portraits of Chadian opinion leaders, a video rubrique by Deuh’b Emmanuel Zyzou and Bokal

>> More on Chad